Bamidbar/Numbers 10:10 Also in the day of your (INI) gladness, and in your (INI) solemn days, and in the beginnings of your (INI) months, you (INI) shall blow with the trumpets, over your (INI) burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your (INI) shalom offerings; that they may be to you(INI) for a memorial before your (INI) Elohim; I am YHWH, your (INI) Elohim. Shemot/Exodus 28:29 And Aaron shall bear the names of he children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon hi heart, when he goes in to the kadosh place for a memorial before YHWH continually. These verses stress the importance of the solemn days, beginning of the months, new moon, Rosh Chodesh, blowing the trumpets, burnt offerings and sacrifices, shalom offerings as a memorial before YHWH’s people. Bamidbar/Numbers 28:1-2 And YHWH spoke to Moshe saying, 2. Command the children of Israel and say to them, My offering and my bread for y sacrifices made by fire, for a sweet savor to me, shall you observe to offer to me in their due season. In the land of Mitzraim, of bondage, YHWH poke to Moshe and Aaron saying Shemot/Exodus 12:2 This month shall be to you (INI) the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. According to the Mishnah and Tosefta, in the Maccabean Herodian, new months were determined by sighting crescent moons. YHWH commands observance of the beginning of the new moon, Rosh Chodesh. Crescent moon worship was drawn from a variety of orientations, only of few of which could be valid in any given month. Calculations and observations were compared to make assertions. False assertions none the less, the assertions were made.
Beginning of each new Hebrew month was signaled by fires lit on mountain tops. After Samaritans began to light false fires, messengers were sent. The messengers inability to reach communities outside Israel before mid-month High Kadosh Days (Sukkot and Pesach, Fasika led outlying communities to celebrate scriptural festivals for two days rather than one, observing the second feast-day of the Jewish, Hebrew diaspora.
Maimoinides work, “Mishneh Torah” has a chapter entitled, “Sanctification of the New Moon” in which calendar rules and their scripture basis are noted. That work links to Bamidbar/Numbers 28:14 And their drink-offerings shall be half an hin of wine to a bullock and third part of an hin to a ram, and a forth part of a hin to a lamb, this is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year. This implies that we should count the year by months and not by days. Syrian and Assyrian calendars share the “crescent” moons and names for months. The Hebrew calendar indicates Hebrew origin. Turkish calendar names include (Subat-February, Eylul-September and Tesrin-October). Before the Babylonian exile four months are referred to in the Tanakh, when the temple was built.
Aviv-the first month; spring, Shemot/Exodus 12:2, 13:4, This day you (INI) came out I the month of Abib. 23:15, Thou (INI) shall keep the feast of unleavened bread; (thou) INI shall eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee (INI) in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou (INI) came out from Mitzraim; and none shall appear before me empty. Devarim/Deuteronomy 16:1.Observe the month of bib, and keep the Passover, Pesauch, Fasika to Elohim , thy (INI) Adonai, for in the month of Abib, Elohim thy (INI) Adonai brought thee (INI) forth out of Mitzraim by night.
Ziv-the second month; light 1Kings 6:1,And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Mitzraim in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of YHWH. 14 So Solomon built the house and finished it. 6:37 In the fourth year was the foundation of the house of YHWH laid, in the month Ziv.
Ethanim-the seventh month; strong; strong rains 1 Kings 8:1-2 Then Solomon assembled the heads of the tribes, the chief of the fathers of the children of Israel, to king Solomon in Jerusalem, that they might bring up the ark of the covenant of YHWH out of the city of David, which is Zion. 2. And ll the men of Israel assembled themselves to king Solomon at the fest in the month Ethanim, (October) which is the seventh month.
Bul-the eighth month; 1 Kings 6:38 And in the eleventh year; in the month Bul, which is the eighth month; was the house finished throughout all the parts, thereof; and according to all the fashion of it. So was he seven years in building it.
Many patterns and possible combinations of “year” exist. Each pattern is called a “keviyah”, setting or established thing, encoded as a series of Hebrew letters, also known as “Four gates”. Inputs, are those variables that influence the pattern a year follows. Those imputs are the year’s position in the 19 year cycle and its molad Tishrei. Letters and numbers indicate if the year is deficient (D) Regular (R) or Complete (C). The Jubilee and Sabbathical cycles are long term calendar time to fit into chronological design.
Yamim Norai’m, The Days of Awe, High Holy Days, High Kadosh Days are the 10 day period of prayer, self-examination and repentance (Aseret yemei Teshuvah) .Rosh Hashanah commemorates the creation of the universe by YHWH. A week before Rosh Hashanah intense prayers for forgiveness are recited in the early hours of the morning to prepare for the coming days of reflection and self-examination. The day before Rosh Hashanah, Erev Rosh Hashanah, Orthodox men undergo a mikveh, ritual bath. Greetings in the synagogue are “LShannah Tovah Tikatevu!” “May you be inscribed in the Book of Life) for a good year” and the response is “gam Lekha”, same to you.
The time of Rosh Hashanah, is the time of blowing the trumpet, birth and binding of Yscok, sorrow of Sisera’s mother’s lamenting for her son (Judges 5:28). When the shofars is blown in the city, are the people not afraid? Amos 3:6 Shall a trumpet be blown in the city and the the people not be afraid? Shall there be evil in a city, and YHWH has not done it? There are four primary types of shofars blast
- Tekah A long single blast=the sound of the King’s coronation
- Shevarim-Three short wail like blasts, representing repentance
- Teruah –Nine staccato blasts of alarm to awaken the soul
- Tekh ha-Gadol-A great long blast